1. Microwave hearing. The hearing of voices in the head from an outside source, but nobody else can hear the voices except the targeted individual.
A. Ultrascience III, Spies are us. Featured Dr. James C. Lin, Ph.D.. biomedical and electrical engineer, educator, author of Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications, 1978. Lin demonstrated microwave hearing, a symptom of many of the victims, hearing voices. Also featured Cheryl Welsh on the issue of mind control experimentation.B. International Defense Review, 3-1-1993, Special Operations Survives Pentagon budget Constraints, by Ramon Lopez.“JASORS, Joint Advanced Special Operations Radio System is being developed by Harris Corporation. ...is a very ambitious, leading-edge technology program, ...Whiles JASORS is a near-term SOF, [Special Operations Forces] enhancement, SORDAC, [Special Operations Research Development and Acquisition Center], is also investigating long-range (1998-2010) and “far-future” (2011 and beyond) weaponry and support equipment. [SORDAC’s director, Army Colonel Douglas J.] Richardson said one far-future communications system being investigated is “synthetic telepathy.” One day, SOF commandos may be capable of communicating through thought processes.”C. Margo Cherney FOIA request for complete NASA abstract Report Number: AD-A090426, June 1, 1980. Response from Brooks Air Force Base, Jan.25, 2000: The requested information is fully denied under 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1)... NASA abstract in part stated,“A decoy and deception concept presently being considered is to remotely create the perception of noise in the heads of personnel by exposing them to low power, pulsed microwave. When people are illuminated with properly modulated low power microwaves the sensation is reported as a buzzing, clicking, or hissing which seems to originate (regardless of the person’s position in the field) within or just behind the head. The phenomena occurs at average power densities as low as microwatts per square centimeter with carrier frequencies from 0.4 to 3.0 GHz. [within frequency range of 400 MegaHertz (MHz) to 3 GigaHertz] By proper choice of pulse characteristics, intelligible speech may be created. Before this technique may be extended and used for military applications, an understanding of the basic principles must be developed. Such an understanding is not only required to optimize the use of the concept for camouflage, decoy and deception operations but is required to properly assess safety factors of such microwave exposure.”D. Microwave News, editor, Louis Slesin, Jan/Feb 1997 p 14. U.S. Air Force Looks to the Battlefields of the Future: Electromagnetic Fields That Might "Boggle the Mind""It would also appear possible to create high fidelity speech in the human body, raising the possibility of covert suggestion and psychological direction. When a high power microwave pulse in the GHz range strikes the human body, a very small temperature perturbation occurs. This is associated with a sudden expansion of the slightly heated tissue. This expansion is fast enough to produce an acoustic wave. If a pulse stream is used, it should be possible to create an internal acoustic field in the 5-15 kHz range, which is audible. Thus it may be possible to “talk” to selected adversaries in a fashion that would be most disturbing to them."E. Federal Times, Dec. 13, 1976 Microwave Weapons Study by Soviets Cited: The Defense Intelligence Agency has released a report on heavy Communist research on microwaves, including their use as weapons. Microwaves are used in radar, television and microwave ovens. They can cause disorientation and possibly heart attacks in humans. Another biological effect with possible anti-personnel uses is ' microwave hearing.'"Sounds and possibly even words which appear to be originating intracranially (within the head) can be induced by signal modulation at very low average power densities," the report said. According to the study, Communist work in this area "has great potential for development into a system for disorienting or disrupting the behavior patterns of military or diplomatic personnel."No mention was made of the still-unexplained microwave bombardment of the American Embassy in Moscow. The study dealt largely with long-term exposure of days or weeks in industrial situations, which usually produce mild effects. Short exposure to intense radiation can cause heart seizure and a wide range of physical disorders.Military interest or funding
A . Yes. See above.
2. Transmission of specific commands into the subconscious
A. Defense News, US Explores Russian Mind Control Technology by Barbara Opall January, 11-17-1993, p. 4.”Pioneered by the government-funded Department of Psycho-Correction at the Moscow Medical Academy, acoustic psycho-correction involves the transmission of specific commands via static or whitenoise bands into the human subconscious without upsetting other intellectual functions. Experts said laboratory demonstrations have shown encouraging results after exposure of less than one minute."B. Janet Morris, reported in the book, The Sorcerer's Challenge : Fears and Hopes for the Weapons of the Next Millennium, by David Shukman. London : Hodder & Stoughton, page 223. of demonstration shown on BBC television on news program entitled Newsnight by David Shukman, (tape available on request).C. U.S. News, January 3-10, 2000, John Norseen [Lockheed Martin neuroengineer in Intelligent Systems Division], Reading your Mind and Injecting Smart Thoughts by Douglas Pasternak."Norseen's interest in the brain stems from a Soviet book he read in the mid-1980s, claiming that research on the mind would revolutionize the military and society at large. [He] coined the term "Biofusion" to cover his plans to map and manipulate [the brain] leading to advances in ...national security... and ...would be able to convert thoughts into computer commands by deciphering the brain's electrical activity. BioFusion would reveal the fingerprints of the brain by using mathematical models, [Smirnov's computer program uses mathematical models also]. It sound crazy,...The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, ...have all awarded...research contracts to Norseen. Norseen is waiting to hear if the second stage of these contracts-portions of them classified- comes through. Norseen's theories are grounded in current science. ...By MRI [Magnetic Resonant Imaging], scientists can tell what the person was doing at the time of the recording...Emotions from love to hate can be recognized from the brain's electrical activity. ...Norseen predicts profiling by brain print will be in place by 2005. ...Norseen would like to draw upon Russian brain-mimicking software and American brain -mapping breakthroughs to allow that communication to take place in a less invasive way. A modified helmet could record a pilot's brainwaves. 'When you say right 090 degrees...the computer would see that electrical pattern in the brain and turn the plane 090 degrees. If the pilot misheard instructions to turn 090 degrees and was thinking "080 degrees," the helmet would detect the error, then inject the right number via electromagnetic waves.'"Military interest or funding
A Yes, Defense Electronics, DOD, Intel Agencies Look at Russian Mind Control... by Mark Tapscott, July, 1993 p. 17.“In a series of closed meetings...FBI officials were briefed on the decade-long research on a computerized acoustic device allegedly capable of implanting thoughts in a person’s mind without that person being aware of the thought.”
Also, US corp. buys Russian mind control equipment.
3. Visual disturbances, visual hallucinations.
A. CNN TV: A demonstration by Dr. Elizabeth Rauscher and Dr. William van Bise, directed magnetic signals into the brain of reporter Chuck DeCaro. They created visual images as in a hallucination. This program also features Dr. Robert O. Becker, two time Nobel prize nominee, scientist and researcher of electromagnetic radiation effects on the body and author of Body Electric, summarized, “The government has never disproved the psychological effects of electromagnetic radiation. ”Dr. Robert Becker commented “that this is a substantial step forward in the understanding how the visual system works” and would be a powerful weapon if used on fighter pilots while trying to fly."For a 55$ copy of this tape call CNN at 404-827-2712 and ask for R2501 #13, R2747 #33, R2501 #15, R2501-#17. It runs about 20 minutes.Military interest or funding
A . Yes. See above.
4. Inject words, numbers into brain via emr waves
A . Defense News, US Explores Russian Mind Control Technology by Barbara Opall January, 11-17-1993, p. 4.“Experts said laboratory demonstrations have shown encouraging results after exposure of less than one minute.”B. U.S. News, 1-3-2000, John Norseen, Reading and changing your mind...ibid see Symptom 2, section C.C. Lobster Magazine, Mind Control and the American Government by Martin Cannon, Number 23. J.F. Schapitz was conducting classified work on microwaving the subconscious with commands as in hypnosis. This work is classified.Military interest or funding
A Defense News, US Explores Russian Mind Control Technology by Barbara Opall January, 11-17-1993, p. 4.“Moreover, decades of research and investment of untold millions of rubles in the process of psycho-correction has produced the ability to alter behavior on willing and unwilling subjects, the experts add. ...Russian senior research scientist, diplomats, ...are beginning to provide limited demonstrations for their U.S. counterparts. Further evaluations of key technologies in the United States are being planned, as are discussions aimed at creating a frame-work for bringing the issue under bilateral or multilateral controls, U.S. and Russian sources say.”
5. Manipulation of emotions
A. Ultrascience, Weapons of War, The Learning Channel, 1997, Featured Dr. Michael Persinger, Laurentian University, Canada. Dr. Persinger described weapons using "psycho or influence technology" and electromagnetic radiation frequencies to control what people think, for psychological warfare purposes.
B. Ultrascience, War 2020, Beyond Productions, The Learning Channel, 1998, with Dr. Michael Persinger, Laurentian University performed a demonstration of a helmet with solenoids which induce magnetic fields into the brain and cause panic, fear, God and UFO experiences. He stated that with current technology it is possible to use mind control on the mass populations.Military interest or funding
A . Yes. See above.
6. Reading thoughts remotely
A. Nature Vol 391/22Januray 1998 Advances in Neuroscience May Threaten Human Rights by Declan Butler ."..at the annual public meeting of the French national bioethics committee held last week in Paris... Jean-Pierre Changeux, the chairman of the committee and a neuroscientist at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, told the meeting that understanding the working of the human brain is likely to become one of the most ambitious and rich disciplines of the future. But neuroscience also poses potential risks, he said, arguing that advances in cerebral imaging make the scope for invasion of privacy immense. Although the equipment needed is still highly specialized, it will become commonplace and capable of being used at a distance, he predicted. That will open the way for abuses such as invasion of personal liberty, control of behaviour and brainwashing. These are far from being science-fiction concerns, said Changeux, and constitute "a serious risk to society". "Denis LeBihan, a researcher at the French Atomic Energy Commission, told the meeting that the use of imaging techniques has reached the stage where "we can almost read people's thoughts".B. Signal Magazine, October, 2001, article titled Decoding Minds by Dr. John D. Norseen, of Lockheed Martin stated ,"We are at the point where this database has been developed enough that we can use a single electrode or something like an airport security system where there is a dome above our head to get enough information that we can know the number you’re thinking,"C. US News and World Report Jan 3-10, 2000, Reading your Mind and Injecting Smart Thoughts by Douglas Pasternak, p. 67 quotes John Norseen,“...Norseen’s theories are grounded in current science.”D. The Washington Times, August 17, 2002, the article entitled NASA Plans to Read Terrorist’s Minds at Airport stated,"Airport security screeners may soon try to read the minds of travelers to identify terrorists. Officials of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] have told Northwest Airlines security specialists that the agency is developing brain-monitoring devices in cooperation with a commercial firm, which it did not identify. Space technology would be adapted to receive and analyze brain-wave and heartbeat patterns, then feed that data into computerized programs 'to detect passengers who potentially might pose a threat,' according to briefing documents obtained by The Washington Times. NASA wants to use 'noninvasive neuro-electric sensors,' imbedded in gates, to collect tiny electric signals that all brains and hearts transmit. Computers would apply statistical algorithms to correlate physiologic patterns with computerized data on travel routines, criminal background and credit information from 'hundreds to thousands of data sources,' NASA documents say. ...Robert Park, spokesman for the American Physical Society stated, 'We’re close to the point where they can tell to an extent what you’re thinking about by which part of the brain is activated, which is close to reading your mind. ...The idea is plausible, he says, but frightening'.E. Science Digest 7-84 page 30 quoting Thomas Jensen of Chicago’s Rush-Presbyterian St. Luke’s Medical Center, and Donald York"we have discovered that just before a person says a particular word, the brain emits waves peculiar to that word alone. ...These waves are the same from person to person."F. Think, Sept/Oct 1992 Dr. Richard Clark at the Flinders University of South Australia wrote the following:"Artificial neural network computer programs are used to include the ability to learn and recognize simple patterns of thought from the electrical fields of the brain."G. Science Digest Oct. 1981 entitled Machines that read Minds by Gary Selden stated that"Indeed, CIA spokespeople have admitted ‘following’ ERP [This is the waveform that the brain characteristically emits after absorbing an external event] research, perhaps the way the agency followed LSD research in the 1950s. ...With remote monitors, such an instrument would be a spy’s dream." It is naive to think that the CIA has not exploited this research.H. Nature, 1-22-1998 The national bioethics committee is taking such threats so seriously that it is launching a study. The title of this article was Advances in Neuroscience May Threaten Human Rights. Denis Le Bihan, a researcher at the French Atomic Energy Commission, stated"we can almost read people’s thoughts".I. New Scientist, 12-11-1999 Vol. 164, No. 2216 page 25 by Graham-Rowe, Ducan, described the technology as a computer programmed under the notion that most people behave in predictable ways when walking to their car. This behavior is transferred into a mathematical pattern and the computer recognizes it as such."Anyone who deviates from this set pattern, such as someone who walks in circles or who lurks in shadows, will set off an alarm..."This is just a small example of human behavior and how it is studied scientifically. No doubt with the political will and the money of national security defense, as victims are alleging, human behavior has been studied and is controlled by government technology.Military interest or funding
A. Yes, government funded. U.S News and World Report, Jan 3-10, 2000, John Norseen, Reading Your Mind and Injecting Smart Thoughts by Douglas Pasternak, p. 67“...It sounds crazy, but Uncles Sam is listening. the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Army’s National Ground Intelligence Center have all awarded small basic research contracts to Norseen, who works for Lockheed-Martin’s Intelligent Systems Division. Norseen is waiting to hear if the second stage of these contracts -portions of them classified-come through. "
7. Causing pain to any nerve of the body
A . Bulletin of Atomic Scientist, Sept 1994, Softkill Fallacy by Steve Aftergood, Page 45. Barbara Hatch Rosenberg writes:“Many of the non-lethal weapons under consideration utilize infrasound or electromagnetic energy (including lasers, microwave or radio-frequency radiation, or visible light pulsed at brain-wave frequency) for their effects. These weapons are said to cause temporary or permanent blinding, interference with mental processes, modification of behavior and emotional response, seizures, severe pain, dizziness, nausea and diarrhea, or disruption of internal organ functions in various other ways."B. Marine Corps Times, March 5, 2001, p. 10., The People Zapper by C. Mark Brinkley,“...focuses energy into a beam of micromillimeter waves designed to stop an individual in his tracks. ...The energy, which falls near microwaves on the electromagnetic spectrum, causes moisture in a person’s skin to heat up rapidly, creating a burning sensation...”C. Numerous other articles on nonlethal weapons, see CAHRA website: www.dcn.davis.ca.us/~welshMilitary Interest or funding
A . Yes, government funding and very heavily discussed.
8. Remote manipulation of human behavior from space
Published EvidenceA. Journal of Microwave Power, 12(4) 1977, p. 320. Radiation Bioeffects Research by Dodge and Glaser,“The information explosion in this field has been quite dramatic since 1969, when the international data base was estimated to consist of less than 1,000 citations. In addition to maintaining inventories of the literature, we have undertaken from time to time to provide assessments of international trends in research, development, and occupational health and safety. In the present paper, we will concentrate on events which have transpired since our last review effort in 1975. Major events which have taken place during that period include: ...(5) Unpublished analyses of microwave bioeffects literature which were disseminated to Congress and to other officials arguing the case for remote control of human behavior by radar;B. Moscow Rabochaya Tribuna, Nov. 26, 1994, FBIS, Ref # MM3011130594 Psychotronic Arms Potential Must be Monitored, by Anatoliy Pushenko, member of the Russian Federation of Space Exploration Scientific and Technical Council:“ A prominent specialist speaks for the first time in our press in Rabochaya Tribuna about psychotropic weapons, which started to be developed in the sixties--space-based energy systems capable of killing every living thing on the planet and driving millions of people crazy. ... There are frequencies that are beneficial to people, but naturally there are also those which are hazardous. ...That is, it has a direct physical effect on the human brain. ... The terrible danger of psychotropic weapons is the possibility of their simultaneously and unequivocally affecting large masses of people over huge areas.C. Moscow Armeyskiy Sbornik, Oct. 1996, No. 10. P. 88-98, FBIS, Russian article, Mori DocID: 587170, Russia: National Information Security by Russian Major General, Valeriy Menshikov, doctor of technical sciences, and Colonel Boris Rodionov.,“...Thus, the new space systems are potentially dangerous from the aspect of unfolding a wide-scale ‘information war’ and even creating global systems for controlling people’s behavior in any region, ...”D. FBIS [Foreign Broadcast Information Service] article by Alain Gossens: Apocalypse Now? HAARP... report from Brussels Telemoustique, 1997, FBIS MoriDocID 587140, scientists, weapons experts, EU members on U.S HAARP Project“Are the Americans currently developing a vast weapons system capable of scanning the entrails of the earth to seek out secret bases, jamming any form of radio communications, influencing human behavior... Nevertheless, if one is aware of the fact that the real sponsors are the Navy, the Air Force, and the Department of Defense, then it is hard to believe that it is not a project for military purposes.”Military interest or funding
A . Probably. See tracking of airplanes, tracking by GPS. Satellites capable of taking pictures of license plates, etc.
9. Harassment, stress symptoms such as helicopters flying overhead
A .The Sorcerer's Challenge : Fears and Hopes for the Weapons of the Next Millennium, Shukman, David, London : Hodder & Stoughton, 1995, P. 225 [Ref. Waco siege in 1993]“The best they [FBI] they could do was to maintain a barrage of noise with helicopters and loudspeakers to keep the followers awake and to try to undermine their [Koresh and follower’s} morale.”B. Aviation Week & Space Technology 1-19-1998 p.55 on information warfare and US capabilities."...techniques as esoteric as ‘mapping the psychological and cognitive makeup’ of foreign leaders or key groups in order to predict reactions to manipulated information, ..." .C. Aviation Week & Space Technology 3-9-1998, page 21 stated that [ref. USAF Gen. John Jumper]"Jumper talked about tools that could...make potential enemies see, hear and believe things that don’t exist"The military is discussing the deployment of weapons to do just that, create symptoms of mental illness. And yet this information is not taken seriously by professionals and has not been accepted as relevant to victim’s allegations.D. Excerpts from CAHRA website: www.dcn.davis.ca.us/~welsh .Quotes from military journals and government document:1.“...to control the will and perception of adversaries ...by applying a regime of shock and awe...It is about effecting behavior.”2. “A decoy and deception concept [using microwaves] to “create intelligible speech ‘ in the head, ‘raising the possibility of covert suggestion and psychological direction.”3. “tools that could...make potential enemies see, hear and believe things that don’t exist.”4. “...crowd control and urban warfare devices that temporarily could paralyze an entire village.”Military interest and funding
A . Yes. See above.
10. Seeing, as in a camera, through your eyes, i.e. to see what you see exactly
A. BBC News Online Oct 11, 1999, Looking Through Cats' Eyes Fuzzy, But Recognizable, Dr. David Whitehouse, A BBC News article reported on the first pictures from an experiment to see through the eyes of a cat.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid 471000/471786.stmMilitary interest and feasibility
11. Control of sleep patterns
A. CNN news broadcast, Special Assignment, Nov.-1985, by Chuck DeCaro, Weapons of War, Is there an RF Gap? Dr. Ross Adey discussed a demonstration of the 1950s Russian Lida machine, which used electromagnetic energy to put Russian psychiatric patients to sleep, as a substitute for tranquilizers and to treat neurotic disturbances. Dr. Adey stated that it worked on cats and dogs and put them to sleep.B. The Defense and Foreign Affairs Daily, Jun 7, 1983, Vol. XII, Number 104, Psy-War: Soviet Device Experiment by Dr. Stefan T. Possony reported: “...Dr. Ross Adey, chief of research at Loma Linda...started testing the machine [the Lida]...the device is on loan to Dr. Ross Adey. ‘The machine is technically described as ‘a distant pulse treatment apparatus. It generates 40 megahertz radiowaves which stimulate the brain’s electromagnetic activity at substantially lower frequencies”Military interest or funding
A. Yes. . The Defense and Foreign Affairs Daily, Jun 7, 1983, Vol. XII, Number 104, Psy-War: Soviet Device Experiment by Dr. Stefan T. Possony.“...On April 29, 1983 this author, as a participant in a panel at the Defense ‘83 conference sponsored by Defense and Foreign Affairs, reported on Dr. Adey’s work...These remarks were delivered to a panel studying psychological warfare.”
12. Computer-brain interface, control and communication
A. APPROPRIATION/BUDGET ACTIVITY RDT&E, Defense-wide BA2 Applied Research R-1 ITEM NOMENCLATURE Computing Systems and Communications Technology PE 0602301E, Project ST-19 The Augmented Cognition (AugCog) program will develop the means to measure a subject’s cognitive state in real time and manipulate it to accomplish the functions. The goal of the Augmented Cognition program is to develop methods that integrate digital devices that support memory, perception, and thinking, and link that support with the user’s context state information to directly improve the overall cognitive performance of the warfighter. The Perceptual Processing Display program focuses on exploiting neuroscience and perceptual processing technologies to redesign devices that deliver information to the human perceptual system. These new devices will be able to extract relevant signal from extraneous background noise, through perceptual modeling. This program will develop technologies that simplify relevant, and eliminate irrelevant, information to improve perception, comprehension, memory, inference, and decision-making. Specifically, this program will demonstrate the manipulation of perceptual data along hundreds of dimensions of the human perceptual system, and will result in the doubling of human information processing performance. http://www.darpa.mil/body/pdf/FY03BudEst.pdfMilitary interest
12. Yes. See above.
13. Complex control of the brain such as retrieving memories, implanting personalities
A.Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, A National Science Foundation /U.S. Department of Commerce-sponsored report (2002). Relevant excerpts. Full text at http://itri.loyola.edu/ConvergingTechnologies/Report/NBIC_pre_publication.pdfList of Participants and Contributors included NASA, Office of Navel Research, DARPA, Sandia National Labs, USAF Research Labs, Ratheon, Lucent Technologies, MIT and Stanford.i. Expanding Human Cognition and Communication. Page 85.“...Truly, the mind is the final frontier, and unraveling its mysteries will have tremendous practical benefits. ...Failure to invest in the necessary multidisciplinary research would delay or even prevent these benefits to the economy, to national security, and to individual well-being. Rapid recent progress in cognitive science and related fields has brought us to the point where we could achieve several breakthroughs that would be of great value to mankind. ...For example, progress in the cognitive neuroscience of the human brain has been achieved through new research methodologies, based in both biology and information science, such as functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) and infrared sensors. However, we are reaching the resolution limits of current instrumentation, for example because of concerns about the safety of human research subjects (Food and Drug Administration 1998), so progress will stall quickly unless breakthroughs in NBIC can give us research tools with much greater resolution, sensitivity, and capacity to analyze data.”ii. Page 86. The Human Cognome Project.“It is time to launch a Human Cognome Project, comparable to the successful Human Genome Project, to chart the structure and functions of the human mind. No project would be more fundamental to progress throughout science and engineering, or would require a more complete unification of NBIC sciences. ...While the research would include a complete mapping of the connections in the human brain, it would be far more extensive than neuroscience. ...Some participants in the human cognition and communication working group were impressed by the long-term potential for uploading aspects of individual personality to computers and robots, thereby expanding the scope of human experience, action, and longevity.”iii. Page 88. Statements and Visions." Participants in the human cognition and communication panel contributed a number of statements, describing the current situation and suggesting strategies for building upon it, as well as transformative visions of what could be accomplished in ten or twenty years through a concentrated effort.”
iv. Page 287 National Security, Theme Summary.. “...Investment in convergent Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information technology and Cognitive science [NBIC] is expected to result in innovative technologies that revolutionize many domains of conflict and peacekeeping. ...As former Defense Secretary William J. Perry has noted, these are the technological breakthroughs that are 'Changing the face of war and how we prepare for war.' There are numerous special programs, reports and presentations that address these goals. The Department of Defense has designated nanoscience as a strategic research area in order to accelerate the expected benefits (Murday 1999). ...Applications of brain-machine interface. The convergence of all four NBIC fields will give warfighters the ability to control complex entities by sending control actions prior to thoughts (cognition) being fully formed. The intent is to take brain signals (nanotechnology for augmented sensitivity and nonintrusive signal detection) and use them in a control strategy (information technology), and then impart back into the brain the sensations of feedback signals (biotechnology).”B. In Approaching the 21st Century: Opportunities for NIMH Neuroscience Research, The National Advisory Mental Health Council Report to Congress on the Decade of the Brain, Jan. 1988 by USHHS. Page 49 stated"Several investigators had noted that when neurons were given brief but intense high-frequency stimulation their electrical properties were changed in ways that would fit those proposed for memory: The changes were triggered by an electrical event, they were strengthened by repetition, and they persisted indefinitely. ...the scientists found that intense high-frequency pulses trigger an unusually large release of calcium in the post synaptic cell..."Military interest or funding
14. Yes. See above.
Cheryl Welsh, March, 2003